SASB: CG-MR-310a.1; FB-FR-310a.2;
GRI:  102-7; 102-8; 102-17, 102-35; 102-36; 103-1; 103-2; 103-3; 203-2 a, 401-2; 401-3 a-b; 404-2a; 405-2
UN SDGs: 5, 8
S | Published: July 21, 2022

Walmart associates at MLK store in Fayetteville, Arkansas on June 1, 2022.

Our Aspiration

Walmart is committed to making retail a place of inclusive and equitable opportunity where people, regardless of where they start, can gain the skills and experiences they need to advance in their careers. Doing so allows us to attract, develop and retain the talent we need to deliver our distinctive customer proposition.

Key Metrics






Number of U.S. associates promoted to jobs of greater responsibility and higher pay1>200,000>300,0002>135,000
Number of associates enrolled in Live Better U (LBU)>12,000> 27,000>30,000


Percentage of U.S. hourly-to hourly promotions to women/people of color359%/44%58%/46%54%/46%
Percentage of U.S. management promotions to women/people of color442%/41%46%/39%45%/40%
Percentage of U.S. officers: women/people of color532%/25%33%/25%34%/27%
Percentage of active LBU students: women / people of color56%/39%60%/50%6


Percent of U.S. hourly associates in full-time jobs7>60%~64%~68%
Starting cost of medical plan per bi-weekly pay period (for full- and part-time associates when eligible)~$29.00$30.50$31.40
Average hourly wage/average total hourly compensation (U.S. hourly associates)8>$14.00/>$18.00>$14.50/>$19.50>$16.50*/>$21.25
*  As of the end of Q1 FY2023, the average hourly wage in the U.S. was over $17.00 per hour.

See all data and progress toward goals and commitments in our ESG Data Table

Relevance to Our Business & Society

Walmart’s mission to help people save money and live better is delivered by our associates who make a difference for our customers every day. As of the end of FY2022, we employed approximately 2.3 million associates worldwide, with approximately 1.7 million associates in the U.S. While a number of factors determine Walmart’s business performance, we believe our investments to provide career paths for our associates, including robust training, education offerings, new ways of working and opportunities for advancement, as well as competitive wages and benefits, have strengthened our workforce. In turn, we believe our associates are a significant contributor to our success. As customer demands and technology change the nature of work, we are focused on attracting, developing and retaining people of all backgrounds who can thrive in an ever-changing retail environment.

We believe investing in frontline retail workers also creates value beyond Walmart. Communities need good entry-level jobs at competitive wages to provide pathways for community members to acquire skills and advance to higher wage, mid-level careers, enabling workforce development and helping to sustain local economies. Many entry-level workers have the potential to advance but need the opportunity to gain specific skills for higher-wage jobs. Employer-based training and employer-funded education offerings can help entry-level workers earn a good paycheck while they acquire the in-demand skills—and, in some cases, formal education—needed to move up to roles with greater responsibility and higher pay.

At the same time, employers are seeking qualified talent to fill their mid-level jobs and can look to retail and other frontline workers who may lack college degrees, but who have earned valuable skills and knowledge through work, as potential talent pools. Not only does upskilling benefit people, but employers often find it to be a cost-effective way to meet their own needs while growing and retaining valuable talent.

Decades of overemphasis on college degrees has created a skills dilemma—both related to accessing training and recognition of skills


Walmart’s Approach

With our position as one of the world’s largest private employers and a major contributor to the global economy, we seek to accelerate the professional development and advancement of our associates and the general workforce through good jobs, competitive compensation and benefits, training and education programs, growth-oriented career paths and Walmart and the Walmart Foundation’s philanthropic programs. Our approach is based on the following principles:

  • Inclusion: Make Walmart a place for everyone by creating opportunity and a sense of belonging. 
  • Well-Being: Prioritize the financial, physical and emotional well-being of associates.
  • Digital: Drive a digital transformation that improves the associate experience.
  • Growth: Provide opportunities for all associates to learn and grow.
  • Strengthening Workforce Development Beyond Walmart: Strengthen the U.S. frontline workforce development system in retail and related sectors.

Key Strategies & Progress

Inclusion | Well-Being | Digital | Growth | Strengthening Workforce Development Beyond Walmart

Through our investments, Walmart in the U.S. has:
  • Built one of the largest private employer training programs in the country
  • Created an in-house skilling capability that allows the company to introduce new innovations and accompanying training at scale
  • Launched a college and education program designed for adult working learners at zero cost to the associate through Live Better U


Walmart offers jobs with low barriers to entry, provides support and opportunities for associates to develop and advance, and seeks to enhance diversity across all levels in the organization. We are also investing in even more ways for associates to share what's on their minds because we understand that being heard plays a significant role in job satisfaction, enhances a sense of belonging, and strengthens our business.

Access to Employment

Entry-level jobs provide economic opportunity and paths to upward mobility, but sometimes people face barriers to employment. Walmart offers a wide range of jobs, creating a place for everyone. For some it's a first job and for others a second chance. While some employers use education degrees as a proxy, such requirements do not necessarily correlate to skill, nor do they measure work ethic or accurately predict growth potential. We use various strategies to increase access to make our overall workforce and talent pipeline more diverse:

  • Streamlined Application Process: We have a simplified hiring process where applicants can apply in-store, online or from our Me@Walmart app (available in app stores). In many cases, we make same-day job offers.
  • Formerly Incarcerated Applicants: Walmart is committed to second chance employment efforts that support hiring and advancement of formerly incarcerated individuals. We were one of the first retailers to “ban the box” that asks about prior criminal convictions on the initial job application. We provide conditional job offers to candidates before the background check and have individualized processes for all candidates who have a prior criminal record. In all 50 states in which we operate, we have a Circumstance Review process that offers candidates a meaningful opportunity to submit additional information to put the criminal record in context. In 2021, Walmart launched hiring pilots in Atlanta, Dallas and Chicago, working with re-entry service providers to boost employment outcomes for formerly incarcerated individuals.
  • Countering Degree Inflation: There are many roles in the U.S. job market, especially in the service sector, where a college degree should not be required for career access and mobility. For example, we do not require Walmart store managers, who earned an average of approximately $212,000 in FY2022, to have a college degree.
  • Valuing Skills and Knowledge: As an employer, Walmart values skills and knowledge gained through work experience, volunteer work, while serving in the military, or through formal education, whether online or in-person. We believe an emphasis on relevant skills and knowledge makes it easier for job seekers to find employment and to advance. 
Awards & Recognition
2022 LinkedIn Top Companies: Best workplaces to grow your career
  • United States (#5), Chile (#7), Mexico (#16), Canada (#21), and India (Flipkart - #22)
2021 Disability Equality Index: 100% for sixth consecutive year

One of 15 companies to earn top scores on three of Human Rights Campaign’s (HRC) Corporate Equality measures
  • 2022 HRC Corporate Equality Index: 100% for sixth consecutive year
  • 2022 HRC Equidad, MX (Walmart Mexico): 100%
  • 2022 HRC Equidad, CL (Walmart Chile): 100%
2022 DiversityInc., ranked #26 in Top 50 U.S. Companies Diversity List
  • #5: Top Companies for Environmental, Social & Governance (ESG)
  • #15: Top Companies for Mentoring
Top 20 Fortune 500 companies on diversity and inclusion 2021

2021 Hispanic Association on Corporate Responsibility Corporate Inclusion Index: 5-Star in Employment, Governance and Procurement

Walmart Canada: one of Canada's Best Diversity Employers 2022

Massmart: Top Employer for 2022 in South Africa by Top Employers Institute

Associates - HC Brief - Group 2022.PNG

Diverse Talent Pipelines

Our diverse associate base serves as a talent pipeline for future leaders in our company. Diverse talent and an inclusive culture equip us to keep pace with evolving business demands and to better serve our diverse customer base. We continue to improve our people practices with a focus on equitably hiring, developing and rewarding our associates; seeking to enhance diversity across all levels; and holding our leaders accountable for progress. Approximately 45% of U.S. management promotions in FY2022 were earned by women and approximately 40% were earned by people of color.9 To learn more about our diverse hiring and development practices and our approach to equity and inclusion, see Equity and inclusion at Walmart and beyond.

Pay Equity

Our strategy to grow diverse talent pipelines includes rewarding our associates equitably. Our latest pay equity analysis in the U.S. and Canada confirms that, taking into account relevant factors such as position, tenure and location, Walmart pays associates equitably regardless of race, ethnicity and gender. We conduct analyses of pay and compensation practices in consultation with expert third-party firms following industry-leading standards. Through pay and policy adjustments, we correct for unintended pay differences and where appropriate adjust for market competitiveness as part of our annual and ongoing reviews. We continue to review our processes and analyses beyond the U.S. and Canada so that we can consistently review and report on our equitable pay and practices globally. We commit to annually updating this disclosure.

Fair pay is foundational to Walmart’s high-performance culture. Pay equity analyses are part of a larger set of practices to support and develop diverse talent and to treat all associates fairly, consistent with our core value of respect for the individual. Examples include:

  • Hiring Practices: Gender-neutral job descriptions; interview training workshops and standardized interview questions; not requesting a salary history to set pay for external candidates; diverse candidate slates for U.S. officers and the Board of Directors
  • Pay Controls: Market-based starting pay rates; limiting discretion on pay; reviewing pay and promotion decisions before finalization
  • Transparency: Providing the pay range for a position upon an associate’s request; supporting associate inquiries regarding pay and providing confidential resources for raising concerns

Listening to Our Associates

Being heard is a foundational part of job satisfaction, whether an associate wants to share an idea or a concern. And our associates’ feedback and creative problem-solving ability are key drivers of our success. We believe direct interaction is the best way to help ensure that associates’ opinions, feedback, ideas, and suggestions are heard and that digital tools facilitate the generation of real insights from millions of individual points of view. Accordingly, we are creating a continuous ecosystem of listening that provides real-time, actionable insights associates are heard, managers are empowered to act, and leaders make decisions based on what matters most to associates.

Listening Channels: Walmart provides multiple channels for associates to be heard, including in-person dialogue, real-time insights, formal engagement surveys, and confidential, anonymous channels.

  • In-Person Dialogue: Our primary method of communication will always be human interaction—through meetings, collaboration, leadership discussions and listening sessions. For example, Walmart CEO Doug McMillon, U.S. CEO John Furner and U.S. Chief Operating Officer Dacona Smith—all of whom began their careers as hourly associates—prioritize visits to Walmart facilities around the country to listen and learn from associates.
  • Real-Time Insights: Walmart US launched the Associate Satisfaction Survey (ASAT)—a new way to gauge associate sentiment in real time—in 2021. ASAT is available on the Me@Walmart app and allows more than one million users, mostly frontline, entry-level associates, to share feedback through a monthly survey with questions designed to identify how associates feel about their job, leaders, team, tools, schedule, pay and benefits.
  • Engagement Surveys: Our annual Associate Engagement Survey is an opportunity to hear from our global workforce. The survey measures associate sentiment on a variety of topics such as relationship with manager and team, career growth and opportunity, belonging, inclusion and company culture. The AES also provides associates with the opportunity to share what is on their minds via an open-text response box.
  • Confidential Resources: Often associates want to share feedback and concerns confidentially or anonymously, and we provide avenues for doing so. Our Open Door process allows associates—from entry level to the C-suite—to share ideas, ask questions and raise concerns in good faith with their supervisors and other leaders at any time without fear of reprisal. Additionally, Walmart’s ethics channels allow associates to make anonymous and confidential reports via a toll-free hotline email address, and web portal. Walmart strictly forbids retaliation against any associate who reports a concern in good faith. We train our associates to be able to recognize and speak up about retaliation and other issues. To make it even easier for associates to speak up, Walmart launched an Open Door and Ethics Portal for US-based associates in 2021; this digital platform is designed to be an intuitive, self-service site where associates can share ethics concerns and Open Door submissions in one place.

Associate feedback is followed up on in several ways. For example, ASAT results are translated into guidance and recommendations for managers on how to improve the associate experience; responses also feed into strategies and solution design across talent acquisition and retention, associate learning, technical empowerment, career development, and overall work environment. AES results dashboards are distributed to facility managers, highlighting key areas of opportunity and suggesting actions to create a more engaged workforce. And associates can access the status of their Open Door and Ethics web submissions via the portal.

Here are a few examples of our associates’ feedback leading to meaningful change:

  • After the tragic murder of George Floyd, Walmart associates engaged in listening sessions to discuss ways to make Walmart more inclusive. Our associate-led shared value networks (SVNs) facilitate these conversations, which can reshape internal practices and influence the broader education/workforce, financial, healthcare and criminal justice systems to advance racial equity.
  • A store associate shared an idea in 2021 with John Furner to close stores on Thanksgiving Day, which we implemented so associates could spend time with loved ones after working hard to serve customers.
  • Associate feedback drove our efforts to replace our “Statement of Ethics” with a new Code of Conduct, which highlights how we bring our culture of integrity to life every day. Their input helped us revise the Code and provided actionable, practical information on each topic. During the process, we surveyed more than 6,000 associates, conducted listening sessions with hundreds of them and incorporated comments from stakeholders in each market.

We conducted surveys, interviews and focus groups for creation of our Leadership Expectations for both our campus and field associates. The Leadership Expectations have been designed to help our associates understand how to bring our purpose and values to life in everyday work and will be incorporated into annual evaluations, training, and talent and development programs.

Confidential Reporting of Concerns
Reports can be made anonymously and are treated as confidential. To ask a question or report an ethics concern, associates can contact Walmart Global Ethics at, via email at or 1-800-WM-ETHIC in the U.S., Puerto Rico and Canada. Our Code of Conduct outlines resources available globally. Learn more on the Walmart Ethics and Integrity page.

Associates have access to a variety of resources to confidentially report concerns or grievances. Walmart strictly forbids retaliation against any associate who reports a concern in good faith. We train our associates to be able to recognize and speak up about retaliation and other issues. Walmart associates receive ethics training during onboarding and regularly thereafter. In FY2022, more than two million associates received Ethics training.
Freedom of Association
Manager and associate trainings include information on labor rights, including associates’ and Walmart’s responsibilities regarding freedom of association. Walmart aims to comply with all applicable laws and practices, and we provide resources for Walmart associates who have questions regarding these laws. We encourage any associate with questions on labor rights to contact Walmart.

As of the end of 2021, certain populations of Walmart associates were represented by some form of third-party representation in 15 of the 24 countries in which Walmart operated, including Mexico, our second-largest market. Since Sam Walton founded the company, one of our enduring core values is Respect for the Individual. Consistent with applicable law and practice, Walmart respects the rights of associates to form, to join or not to join an employee association or trade union of their choice without interference. Associates should exercise these rights in an informed manner and with the benefit of thoughtful consideration of available information. In the exercise of these rights, we believe in the free exchange of ideas, opinions and information, provided there is no interference.


We provide our workforce with competitive total compensation, scheduling that is predictable and flexible, and benefits to support associate wellness and encourage them to stay with Walmart and grow their skills and knowledge.

Financial Well-Being

We aim to enhance financial well-being of our associates by offering our majority full-time workforce predictable and flexible scheduling, paid leave, competitive wages and standard-setting benefits.

Majority Full-Time Workforce

Full-time roles can lead to greater take-home pay for associates while helping them gain the knowledge and experience needed for advancement. While the majority of our workforce is full-time, we’ll always be a place where people can also find part-time roles. This helps many individuals who want to supplement household income and build new skills while managing other interests and obligations.

  • Approximately 68% of our U.S. hourly associates are full-time, excluding Home Office associates.10 These associates’ jobs range from entry-level to supervisory and specialized roles in pharmacy or grocery.
  • Approximately 98% of our U.S. supply chain associates11 are full-time, including associates with roles in our distribution and fulfillment centers.


Walmart’s scheduling system is built around predictability, consistency and flexibility to support the varying preferences and needs of associates while meeting the needs of our customers.

  • Predictability: We provide Walmart associates with their schedules at least two weeks in advance. Many associates want even more predictability, so we provide a scheduling option where associates can work the same shifts with their team for at least 13 weeks, enabling them to build team relationships and plan and prioritize responsibilities outside of work.
  • Consistency: Team Scheduling aligns the schedules of full-time members of an individual team so they consistently work together. Shifts begin and end at the same time and team members have the same days on and off. This model provides for a consistent up-to-40-hour/week work schedule, which helps associates know what to expect in their paycheck every two weeks.
  • Flexibility: The Me@Walmart app allows associates to easily view schedules, swap shifts with colleagues and pick up available unfilled shifts, giving associates greater flexibility and ownership of their schedules. We also provide cross-training to associates so they are eligible to work in different jobs across the store, opening opportunities to grow new skills and get access to available hours.
Paid Leave

Walmart provides regular paid time off (PTO) and protected PTO to part-time and full-time hourly U.S. associates in our stores, clubs and supply chain and empowers associates to choose how to use their paid leave.

  • Paid Time Off (Includes Sick Leave): Walmart’s PTO policy combines paid sick leave, vacation time, personal time and holiday time into one category, giving associates flexibility in how to use their paid time off. Walmart’s full- and part-time associates receive regular and protected PTO. Associates earn regular PTO at different rates, depending on their full- or part-time status or tenure and take regular PTO with supervisor approval. In addition, we also offer protected PTO, which allows our hourly associates to earn up to 48 hours of paid time per year (more in some locations) that they can use anytime to cover scheduled shifts, without attendance consequences, when they are unexpectedly unable to make it to work. Associates begin earning protected PTO on day one and regular PTO on their 90th day.
  • COVID-19 Emergency Leave Policy: Beyond PTO, Walmart created a COVID-19 emergency leave policy in March 2020, which the New York Times editorial board said “set a standard” for the private sector. This policy was updated in January 2022 following CDC guidance reducing recommended isolation from two weeks to five days. The policy expired on March 31,12 however Walmart associates continue to have access to leave options, including paid time off mentioned above. In FY2022, Walmart's COVID leave costs exceeded $1 billion. Read more information on our response to COVID-19 here.
  • Expanded Parental Leave and Adoption Benefit: Walmart provides U.S. salaried and full-time hourly associates with maternity and parental leave benefits. Birth moms can access up to ten weeks of paid maternity and six weeks of paid parental leave. They can receive up to 16 weeks of paid time away when maternity and parental leave are combined. Parental leave applies to associates who become parents through birth, adoption or foster care placement. Our parental leave policy provides up to six weeks of paid time off to bond with a new child. We also offer a $5,000 adoption benefit. In FY2022 alone, approximately 33,000 Walmart parents took advantage of maternity leave, parental leave or adoption benefits.13
Wage Structure & Pay

In every market where we operate and for every role, we must offer a competitive starting wage to recruit talent and run our business. We are focused on creating a ladder of opportunity where associates can use the skills and knowledge they acquire to move up to jobs with greater responsibility and higher corresponding pay.

Our wage structure reflects varied market rates associated with each role, our geographic footprint (concentrated in the Heartland, but ranging from rural Nebraska to just outside San Francisco, with different costs of living and labor markets) and business format, such as our Neighborhood Markets (grocery), our eCommerce fulfillment centers and supply chain warehouses, our Sam’s Club format and our Supercenters.

We continually review and invest in wages, with an emphasis on jobs that require higher skills. As we continue to roll out our team-based operating model in U.S. stores, we’ve invested in higher-paying roles and increased pay for more than 1 million hourly store associates in FY2022, including raises for associates who work in the digital, stocking, front end, food and consumables and general merchandise areas of our stores.

Average hourly wage and total compensation, end of FY2022


Average Hourly Wage


Average Total Hourly Compensation


Peer Comparison

Walmart U.S.16>$16.50>$21.25Grocery chains, multi-category retailers, dollar stores
Sam’s Club U.S.17>$17.25>$22.50Warehouse clubs
Supply chain only (Walmart U.S. and Sam’s Club U.S.)18>$23.75>$32.00eCommerce fulfillment
  • Average Hourly Wage: The average hourly wage in the U.S. is over $17 per hour as of the end of Q1 FY 2023.19
  • Starting Wage:20 Walmart's average hourly starting rate in the U.S. was approximately $15.70 as of the end of Q1 FY 2023.21 Walmart's starting hourly wage rates vary by region and role and have the following ranges:
    • For store formats (e.g. Supercenter, Neighborhood Market grocery format): $12 to $32 per hour
    • For Sam's Club: $15 to $32 per hour
    • For distribution center and fulfillment centers: $16 to $34 per hour
  • 10% Discount: Walmart associates receive a discount card22 that provides a 10% discount on fresh fruits, vegetables and regularly priced general merchandise, plus select merchandise on, as well as a free Walmart+ membership for hourly field associates which includes free grocery delivery, free shipping on and member prices on prescriptions and fuel.  Sam’s Club associates receive a Sam’s Plus membership and a 10% discount on fresh fruits and vegetables.
  • 401(k): We offer 401(k) contribution plans, which provide full- and part-time hourly U.S. associates a match of up to 6% after one year for those credited with 1,000 hours of service during their first year. Associates are eligible to contribute to their 401(k) on their first day of work. Our 401(k) program had an average enrollment of approximately 700,000 in FY2022, and Walmart’s company match in the U.S. totaled $1.4 billion.
  • Stock Ownership Programs: Associates can participate in an associate stock purchase plan with company match. Walmart matches 15% of the first $1,800 U.S. associates contribute to their stock purchase program each year, up to $270 per plan year (age restrictions apply). In FY2022, 38% of our active full-time and salaried U.S. associates participated in at least one of Walmart’s stock ownership programs, including but not limited to equity awards and our Associate Stock Purchase Plan.
  • Financial Planning Tools: We provide associates access to tools such as the Even app, which helps them manage their money and plan for bills, savings and spending. When unexpected expenses occur, our associates can also access earned wages ahead of scheduled paychecks.
  • Financial Education: Walmart collaborates with partners like Merrill to provide educational tools and resources to help associates learn about financial topics such as budgeting, credit scores and investing.
Walmart hired more truck drivers in the U.S. in 2021 than any time in our company’s history due to increased demand. Walmart provides industry leading pay to drivers, who can make up to $110,000 in their first year with the company. Drivers who have been with Walmart longer can earn more based on factors such as tenure and location.

In 2022, we launched the Walmart Private Fleet Development Program with our established Walmart drivers serving as Certified Driver Trainers and developing a new generation of drivers drawing from our existing associate base. In addition to specialized training in the Walmart Academies, our Certified Driver Trainers work with trainees, both teaching written material and overseeing driving, to help them earn their Commercial Driver's License at no cost through LBU.

Physical Well-Being

We are committed to providing associates and their family members who utilize our medical plans with access to affordable, high-quality care. Walmart is at the forefront of employee health care innovation with a focus on quality, efficiency and effectiveness.

  • Affordable Medical Coverage: For 2022, medical coverage starts at $31.40 per pay period for full and part-time U.S. associates when eligible. This is approximately one-third less than the average premium employees pay at other companies nationally.23
  • Centers of Excellence: For associates enrolled in Walmart medical plans, our Centers of Excellence program provides access to some of the best specialists and hospitals for serious medical issues, often at zero cost, based on plan enrollment and eligibility. To provide our associates with quality care, Walmart partners with leading health centers, including the Cleveland Clinic, Johns Hopkins and the Mayo Clinic. The Harvard Business Review wrote, “[Center of Excellence] programs are at the vanguard of U.S. companies’ efforts to control health care costs while providing employees with superior care, and results have been dramatic.”
  • Included Health: Included Health is available at no cost for associates enrolled in most Walmart medical plans. Included Health offers expert medical second opinions to associates and helps with finding a high-quality doctor to see in person. Included Health also offers a care navigation platform designed to meet the healthcare needs of our LGTBQ+ associates and their families.
  • Doctor On Demand: For associates enrolled in most Walmart medical plans, Doctor On Demand allows affordable, nationwide, virtual access to health care providers at no cost. 
  • Walton Life Fitness Pass: For as little as $9 per paycheck, a Walton Life Fitness Pass membership provides U.S. associates and their family members access to thousands of fitness centers nationwide.
  • A Financial Incentive for Healthier Life Choices: Associates and their families can be rewarded for making better choices such as eating healthier, walking more or saving more with the Thrive Challenge.

Emotional Well-Being

Walmart is partnering with external experts using science, data and technology to help associates enhance their emotional wellness through sustainable behavior changes. Walmart provides support for self-care and mental health resources, ranging from grief counseling to parenting to managing stress and anxiety. Initiatives include:

  • No Cost Behavioral Health Services: All associates and their family members, regardless of whether they’re on a Walmart medical plan, can receive support for emotional wellness through Resources for Living (RFL). This includes ten counseling sessions per type of concern at no cost and unlimited telephone support.  RFL provides free resources for a range of concerns, including parenting, relocation, grief, job loss, substance abuse and natural disasters. 
  • Well-Being Services Through Thrive Global: Walmart entered a partnership with Thrive Global to make resources available to all associates to strengthen physical well-being and mental resilience.
Centers of Excellence
Through our Centers of Excellence (CoE) program, we have partnered with world-class health centers across the U.S., such as Mayo Clinic, Geisinger Medical Center and Cleveland Clinic to provide certain services such as spine and cardiac surgery, cancer evaluations, joint (hip and knee) replacements and organ transplants.

For associates enrolled in Walmart’s health care plans, the Centers of Excellence program covers all costs, including travel, lodging and meals for the associate and a caregiver companion (except in the case of weight loss surgery). With a few exceptions, there are no co-payments, co-insurance or deductibles.

This innovative program was featured in a Harvard Business Review case study in 2019. The study noted that the CoE program ensures that associates get high-quality care and that Walmart’s success in improving health care value can be a model for others to address the cost and quality dilemma. The results of the CoE program are clear: based on an analysis conducted in partnership with Geisinger Neuroscience Institute and Health Design Plus, Walmart associates who use the CoE program realize better outcomes than those who do not. For example, many CoE patients were able to pursue alternatives to spine surgery and joint replacements based on CoE assessment and care. Of those who did undergo surgery, re-admission rates were dramatically lower than they were with non-CoE treatments. Recovery times were also shorter. More than 95% of Walmart plan members say they are “satisfied” or “very satisfied” with their treatment.

CoE-realized outcomes are far superior. See below:


Source: Lisa Woods, Jonathan R. Slotkin, MD, and M. Ruth Coleman, Transforming Healthcare, Harvard Business Review (March 2019) (citing Walmart, Geisinger and Health Design Plus).


Walmart continues to integrate technology into our jobs to improve experiences for customers and associates alike.

In June of 2021, Walmart unveiled Me@Walmart, an app built in-house by Walmart Global Tech for U.S. store associates. The app consolidates key work features, driving efficiency, and helps connect associates with their leader, their team and their work. Me@Walmart has features to simplify daily tasks, serve customers and plan for life outside of work. These include:

  • Scheduling: The app lets associates easily view their shifts up to two weeks in advance, check on their upcoming paid time off and request changes to their schedule as needed.
  • Mobile Clock In: Associates can clock in with a tap of a button once they arrive at their store, saving steps by not needing to walk to the time clock at the back of the store.
  • Associate Communication Tools: Constant communication is essential for our business. Push-to-talk technology works like a walkie talkie and enables associates to instantly connect with one another, while voice and text messaging features provide an easy method of communicating across shifts to help associates work as a team to stay nimble and react to customers’ needs.
  • Ask Sam: A digital assistant for work and personal needs, associates can ask questions to quickly locate merchandise for customers, access schedule and communication tools and look up the metrics that drive their business.
  • Associate Satisfaction Survey (ASAT): A new way of gauging associate sentiment in real time, the ASAT gives store leadership visibility into how their store excels and where they can improve.
  • Visibility to Key Work Tasks: The app acts as a running checklist for the day’s top tasks, so associates know the top priorities for their area and team leads can track progress, ensuring the team is delivering a great customer and member experience in real-time.
  • Expanding Inventory Management Access: Me@Walmart expands access to inventory information to all associates, so everyone is able to help customers and members find what they need. For example, associates can see how many pillows are in the store, where they are located in the stockroom, when the next delivery is and what is in-stock at nearby stores.

To ensure associates can use the app, Walmart is further investing in our connected associate base by equipping store associates with new smartphones with cases and protection plans, free of charge. Associates are only able to access their device’s work features while they’re on the clock but can use the smartphone as their own personal device, and Walmart has no access to their personal data. More than 740,000 devices have been provided to associates, with plans to expand the offer to most U.S. store associates by the end of FY2023.
Most U.S. store associates are utilizing digital devices and custom apps to fulfill online orders, manage inventory, stock shelves and answer customer questions.

Human Capital Image - Crop Opt A.png


We’re creating a ladder of opportunity so people can build a career at Walmart, regardless of where they start. Associates can join us and begin working and learning on a team, receive role-specific Walmart Academy training and take advantage of our Live Better U education offering. Associates can use these experiences and acquired knowledge to continue moving up to roles with greater responsibility and higher pay. Walmart has a proven track record of making advancement a reality. Approximately 75% of our U.S. salaried store, club and supply chain management started their careers in hourly positions.

Teaming: Job Design at Walmart

Walmart U.S. stores use an operating model that places associates on teams where they follow the same schedule and are responsible for specific store areas. Our team-based model is tiered with positions ranging from entry-level to hourly management roles, and associates are cross-trained in a variety of tasks and responsibilities within their team.

We implemented teaming because we believed this job design would include:

  • Greater associate ownership of their work and store area  
  • Greater associate stability through a consistent schedule
  • Cross-trained associates with additional skills and a greater understanding of the Walmart business. We believe this leads to better customer service capabilities, makes it easier for those who want more hours to get more hours, and for those who want to grow their career at Walmart, to learn the skills needed for their next job.

Associates are also reporting improvement in sentiment related to their work experience, specifically:

  • They are empowered to make decisions on how best to do their work.
  • Their team works effectively to achieve results.
  • Their team focuses on team performance and sets goals.
  • They better understand what is expected of them in their role. 
Human Capital

Training: On-the-Job Development & Walmart Academy Trainings

Walmart has embedded training throughout the associate experience. Our teaming structure provides cross-training and on-the-job development starting on day one with the company. Since 2016, Walmart’s formal training program—Walmart Academy—helps associates learn through both in-person, and more recently, virtual training.

There are clear benefits to the training and continual learning cycle starting early in an associate’s tenure. Employees are more likely to stay and grow with a company when they understand what is expected in a role, when they know colleagues and managers and when they develop an understanding of the business.24 For our entry-level associates, and as a complement to the in-person training that occurs on an associate's team, we provide specialized training using our in-house designed Walmart Academy learning app.

The Walmart Academy app also provides on-demand, on-the-job learning for our U.S. store associates beyond the entry level. Additionally, Walmart uses virtual Walmart Academy trainings to bring learning experiences to associates' facilities using a mix of both augmented and virtual reality.

Walmart has built more than 200 physical Academies in the United States. Utilizing immersive teaching that combines technology, classroom training and ongoing coaching on the sales floor, associates learn retail fundamentals and prepare for their first supervisory roles and for advanced managerial positions. The program is expanding beyond stores, distribution centers and fulfillment centers, with Walmart opening new Walmart Academies for our supply-chain associates to become Walmart truck drivers.

  • In FY2022, despite the challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic, we trained approximately 167,000 associates via Walmart Academy, including in-person and virtual trainings.
  • Our higher education partners, through Live Better U, have approved Walmart Academy trainings for college credit, with over $17 million in potential savings of college credit awarded to our associates since LBU began.
  • Associates have completed more than 2.5 million advanced trainings since our nationwide network of Walmart Academies launched in 2016. 
Recognition of Walmart Academy
The Brandon Hall Group, a research and analysis firm that recognizes excellence in human capital management annually, recognized Walmart’s learning tools and programs in August 2021, including: 
  • Walmart Academy App: Best Use of Mobile Learning (Gold).  Walmart's Academy App provides sales floor associates with just-in-time training on tactical tasks through the improvement of existing technology. Having knowledge available on their handheld devices in the moment, Walmart associates are empowered to confidently serve customers with a seamless shopping experience.

Education Offerings: Walmart’s Live Better U

Live Better U (LBU) offers approximately 1.6 million U.S. part and full-time hourly Walmart and Sam's Club associates access to Walmart-paid formal education opportunities that meet them wherever they are on their education journey, from foundational offerings like high school completion, to short-form programs including Business Analytics and Project Management, to college degrees. We believe LBU can help address disparities in access to education, drives increased talent attraction, while creating upward mobility for associates and scaling our internal talent pipelines. As of August of 2021, Walmart pays 100% of college tuition and books for LBU students, removing the $1 a day fee that previously applied.

Human Capital

We designed our education program to remove the barriers that too often stop someone from getting a degree, specifically:

  • Cost: Student-loan debt in the U.S. tops $1.7 trillion, but eligible Walmart associates can earn associate and bachelor’s degrees with Walmart paying 100% of college tuition and books, representing a chance to graduate debt-free from an accredited university.
  • Time: Students can save time by getting credit for previous learning, including paid training at Walmart Academy and credits earned at other institutions.
  • Navigating an Unfamiliar System: Associates will receive support from an education coach on everything from selecting the appropriate degree to academic and retention coaching.
  • Relevance in a Changing Economy: LBU focuses on in-demand degrees and certificates in relevant and growing fields.
  • Low Completion Rates Among Adult Learners: LBU engages institutions known for their success working with adult learners and their focus on completion rather than enrollment.

In 2021, Walmart added three Historically Black Colleges and Universities to our slate of LBU Academic partners: Morehouse College, North Carolina A&T State University and Spelman College. Additionally, the University of Arizona, a Hispanic Serving Institution, became an LBU Academic partner.
We also began offering new “bite-sized” certificates for frontline associates interested in moving up at their facility and beyond. Associates engaged in one of these three LBU short-form programs— Frontline Management, Project Management, or Business Analytics and Operations—can receive college credit with LBU's academic partners.


LBU is positively impacting our business and associates, including by improving retention and promotion rates:

  • Since Walmart launched LBU in 2018, more than 72,000 Walmart associates have enrolled in the program and more than 11,000 students have completed LBU programs, including over 1,500 graduates who have earned an associate's or bachelor’s degree in an in-demand field.
  • According to a 2021 study by the Lumina Foundation, "Walmart’s hourly associates who participated in LBU are significantly less likely to leave the company than non-participants; participants leave the company at a rate four times lower than non-participants."
  • According to the Lumina Foundation study, Black hourly associates who participated in LBU were 87.5 percent more likely to receive promotions than non-participants.  White associates were 80 percent more likely, and Hispanic or Latino associates were 70.7 percent more likely.

LBU helps Walmart learners acquire education in high-demand fields:

  • More than 11,500 associates are pursuing targeted education offerings and developing skills that align to high-need roles in our technology, health and wellness, supply chain and realty business segments in FY22. LBU is committed to providing associates with visibility to those opportunities. 
  • We offer a “Technology Fundamentals Certificate” through LBU from Thinkful, enabling our associates to learn about digital skills in a short-form, stackable credential.
  • Walmart hosted information sessions for LBU Cybersecurity and Technology graduates, and those near graduation, with Global Tech leaders and hiring managers.  Interested participants also were provided career coaching support from our partners at Guild Education. To date, over a dozen field associates have been hired into Home Office Cybersecurity roles and LBU plans to scale this program significantly in 2022.
  • 382 LBU Pharmacy Tech students enrolled in an LBU career diploma have moved from frontline retail roles into a new career in the Walmart Pharmacy, including into licensed Pharmacy roles.

LBU Snapshot, as of the End of FY2022

LBU Program

Number of LBU students enrolled (since 2018 and as of Jan 2022)

Number of LBU graduates (since 2018 and as of Jan 2022)

Foundational Programs
High School Completion12.9423,280
ESL / Language programs251,774384
“College Start” introductory classes for bachelor’s degrees10,6822,989
Short-Form Programs
People and Business Leadership certificate2,4801,332
Other certificates (e.g., web design, project management and business analytics)3,4541,239
Degree and Career Diploma Programs
Career diplomas in eight fields (e.g., optician, construction, electrician training)14,523648
Associate degrees2,389222
Bachelor degrees28,5991,358

Learn more at Live Better U.

Career Paths

We believe there is a path for everyone at Walmart. We are providing new opportunities for associates to understand how to grow within their own facility. Through new Leadership Expectations (see below), field managers are making growth a regular focus with their associates.

Over 81% of Walmart U.S store roles above entry level were filled by internal candidates and over 135,000 U.S. associates were promoted to jobs of greater responsibility and higher pay in FY2022. We believe our focus on improving career paths for our associates through robust training, new ways of working and opportunities for advancement encourages hourly associates to view Walmart as a place they can build a career and differentiates Walmart from other employers.

As associates build their skill sets across our multifaceted business, they have opportunities for movement between segments, roles and geographies. Few employers offer the range of careers or scope of opportunities as Walmart. Whether a prospective associate is interested in merchandising, robotics, data analytics, traditional retail, or other areas, those options exist at Walmart.

Walmart Careers: Multiple points of entry, multiple career paths


In 2022, we launched Hiring and Career Weeks, designed to bring our career paths to life for hourly associates in U.S. stores. Hiring and Career Weeks give associates the opportunity to explore other roles in their facility and make connections with managers and colleagues in new fields. For example, an associate working in a stocking role may be interested in our Automotive Care Centers (ACCs) and can use this initiative to learn about the skills and experience needed to move into an ACC role.

Career growth within facilities is also being encouraged through our new Leadership Expectations. These guide managers to talk with associates on a regular basis about growth at Walmart and their performance, providing feedback, coaching and guidance on goals, results, competencies and capabilities.

In 2022, we launched a new internship program for Walmart field associates who are pursuing or recently graduated with a secondary degree, including LBU graduates, where they can apply to intern with a Home Office team for eight or more weeks. We aim to help these associates with their internal job search for full time Home Office roles.

Strengthening Workforce Development Beyond Walmart

The Economic Opportunity in Retail Initiative seeks to promote equitable advancement with a focus on America’s frontline talent. Since 2015, Walmart and the Walmart Foundation have invested over $190 million to accelerate career mobility across the retail sector.

The COVID-19 pandemic accelerated economic and technological transformations that were already underway, while exacerbating skill, education and economic inequities that have long existed, underscoring the need to provide ways for people to learn new skills affordably, effectively and rapidly.

Education beyond high school is key to increasing economic mobility, but more than half of American adults do not have a post-secondary degree. Through business and philanthropic initiatives, Walmart and the Walmart Foundation have collaborated with leading non-profits, government agencies, education providers, key funders and other employers to create a movement around stronger learning systems for working adults and greater recognition of skills—including skills acquired through alternative learning models—as key to career advancement. Core to this work is a focus on the equitable advancement of frontline workers.

Since 2015, Walmart and the Walmart Foundation have invested in organizations that work to create multiple pathways to equitable advancement for retail and other service sector workers who do not have college degrees. These efforts include:

  • Seeding and scaling innovative learning models for adult workers without college degrees so more people can access learning through work. For example, we have supported organizations like EdX’s MicroBachelors program, Merit America and Education Design Lab, each of which have developed short-term, skill-based programs that connect people to jobs.
  • Building a hiring and advancement system that can recognize and verify the skills people learn through all forms of learning and work. Our grants to U.S. Chamber of Commerce Foundation, Open Skills Network, Digital Credentials Consortium and Credential Engine support the creation of standards and practices to verify and validate the skills people earn through alternative routes like on-the-job learning. We are investing in a system where all learning counts and that seeks to ensure skills are clearly articulated and transferable across a person’s career.
  • Engaging employers to adopt and implement equitable hiring and advancement practices that drive greater career mobility. For example, organizations like FSG’s Talent Rewire and National Fund for Workforce Solutions work directly with large and small employers to incorporate tools and resources to adopt equitable hiring and advancement practices.
  • Advocating for an enabling policy environment.  Walmart supports workforce training and education policy efforts and actively engages in business collaboratives such as the Business Roundtable’s Multiple Pathways Initiatives and the Markle Foundation's Rework America Alliance that are focused on building stronger career pathways for workers using skills as the currency for mobility.
  • Our Center for Racial Equity also includes a workstream that focuses on equity in education and the workforce. One of our initial investments is as a founding partner of OneTen, a coalition of leading executives who are coming together to upskill, hire and advance one million Black individuals in America over the next ten years into family-sustaining jobs with opportunities for advancement. Read more in Equity & Inclusion.


  • Opportunity is not equally distributed across society, particularly along racial, ethnic, economic, gender and geographic lines.  
  • The economic and cultural environment favors traditional educational models over on-the-job education and skills development, and there is an immature market for cost-effective, practical tools to rapidly build skills among adult learners.  
  • Achievement of Walmart’s workforce development aspirations is dependent on retailers and other similar businesses embracing the business case for frontline workforce development, as well as taking a skills-based approach to hiring and advancement in which an individual's skills and capabilities, no matter where learned, drive hiring and advancement opportunities. 
  • Social science and economic philosophy are still developing on the most effective strategies for frontline workforce development at scale, and there are differences of opinion on what constitutes a good job and a fair and compelling associate value proposition. As a result, there are pressures for faster or more urgent action in certain aspects of Walmart’s overall human capital strategy (e.g., base hourly wage) that may obscure the importance of other strategies that promote economic and career mobility (e.g., benefits, upskilling offering).  
  • Walmart is subject to local, national and international economic trends and realities. There is strong competition among employers for skilled, diverse workers, and labor surpluses and shortages can impact retail businesses. In the United States, the federal minimum wage currently creates downward pressure on wages in certain regions of the country.  
  • Walmart’s business is evolving rapidly. Customer trends towards omni-channel shopping, including pickup and delivery, change the skills necessary in Walmart's frontline workforce and may outpace incumbent associates' skills and readiness.  
  • National and global catastrophic events, including pandemics, can exacerbate many of the above factors.

About Our Reporting


1. Data includes both hourly and management promotions and excludes Walmart Home Office promotions.

2. Promotions in FY2021 grew significantly as we moved Walmart U.S. stores to the new teaming structure.

3. U.S. metrics include all 50 states but exclude Puerto Rico. U.S. non-management metrics include all hourly associates, excluding temporary associates.

4. U.S. metrics include all 50 states but exclude Puerto Rico. U.S. management metrics include all salaried, exempt associates.

5. U.S. metrics include all 50 states but exclude Puerto Rico. U.S. officer metrics include president, executive vice president, senior vice president and vice president positions.

6. Compared to our reporting of this metric in FY2021, we believe the significant increase in the proportion of LBU students who identify as people of color in FY2022 is in part due to the removal of the $1/day fee in FY2022, and the addition of strategic partners such as Morehouse College, North Carolina A&T University, Spelman College and the University of Arizona.

7. The calculation excludes the following associate types: Home office, pharmacists, on-site-clinics, drivers, management trainees and temporary associates.

8. The calculation excludes the following associate types: Home office associates, pharmacists, on-site-clinics, drivers, management trainees and temporary associates. Average total compensation includes average hourly pay and other compensation and benefits per hour for full- and part- time associates. This does not include special cash bonuses or paid leave related to COVID-19.

9. U.S. metrics include all 50 states but exclude Puerto Rico. U.S. management metrics include all salaried, exempt associates.

10. The calculation excludes the following associate types: Pharmacists, on-site-clinics, drivers, management trainees and temporary associates.

11. Supply chain includes associates who work in distribution and fulfillment centers but excludes drivers.

12. Except where required by law.

13. Salaried and truck driver associates: Eligible as of hire date. Full‑time hourly associates: Eligible following 12 months of service. Part-time and temporary associates: Not eligible.

14. The calculation excludes the following associate types: Home office associates, pharmacists, on-site-clinics, drivers, management trainees and temporary associates.

15. The calculation excludes the following associate types: Home office associates, pharmacists, on-site-clinics, drivers, management trainees and, temporary associates. Average total compensation includes average hourly pay, other compensation and benefits per hour for full and part time associates. This does not include special cash bonuses or paid leave related to COVID-19.

16. This segment includes the Walmart U.S. stores and supply chain.

17. This segment includes Sam’s Club clubs and supply chain.

18. Supply chain includes associates who work in distribution and fulfillment centers but excludes drivers.

19. The average hourly wage data is as of the pay period ending April 22, 2022 (the last pay period for Q1 FY2023), and includes associates in the stores, clubs and supply chain field locations. The calculation excludes the following associate types: Home office associates, pharmacists, on-site-clinics, drivers, management trainees and, temporary associates.

20. The starting wage metrics exclude the following associate types: Home office associates, pharmacists, on-site-clinics, drivers, management trainees and, temporary associates.

21. The average hourly starting rate is calculated as the average hourly wage of U.S. associates that joined in the preceding six months.

22. Full- and part-time Walmart U.S. associates receive the discount card after 90 days of employment.

23. See Figure 6.4, 2021 Kaiser Family Foundation Health Benefits Annual Survey.

24. See, e.g., Zeynep Ton, The Good Jobs Strategy: How the Smartest Companies Invest In Employees To Lower Costs And Boost Profits, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt (2014).

25. Launched April 2021.

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