Human Capital: Good Jobs & Advancement for Associates

SASB: CG-MR-310a.1, FB-FR-310a.1, FB-FR-310a.2
GRI: 2-7, 2-26, 2-30, 3-3, 203-2a, 401-2, 401-3a-b, 404-2a, 405-2
UN SDGs: 5, 8
S | Published: May 31, 2023

Walmart associates at MLK store in Fayetteville, Arkansas on June 1, 2022.

Our Aspiration

Walmart is committed to making retail a place of inclusive and equitable opportunity where people, regardless of where they start, can gain the skills and experiences they need to advance in their careers. Doing so allows us to attract, develop, and retain the talent we need to deliver our distinctive customer proposition.

Key Goals & Metrics

Number of U.S. associates promoted to jobs of greater responsibility and higher pay1 >300,0002 >135,000 >180,000
Number of associates enrolled in Live Better U (LBU) >27,000 > 30,000 >34,000
Percentage of U.S. hourly-to hourly promotions: women/people of color3 58%/46% 54%/46%54%/50%
Percentage of U.S. management promotions: women/people of color4 46%/39% 45%/40%40%/43%
Percentage of U.S. officers: women/people of color5 33%/25%34%/27% 37%/28%
Percentage of active LBU students: women / people of color 56%/39% 60%/50%6 58%/51%
Percent of U.S. hourly associates in full-time jobs7 ~64% ~68%~68%
Starting cost of medical plan per bi-weekly pay period8 $30.50 $31.40$33.00
Average hourly wage/average total hourly compensation (U.S. hourly associates)9 >$14.50/>$19.50 >$16.50/>$21.25 >$17.00*/>$21.75
*  As of the end of Q1 FY2024, the average hourly wage in the U.S. was over $17.50 per hour.

Relevance to Our Business & Society

Retail is a people business. Walmart’s mission to help people save money and live better is delivered by our associates, who make a difference for our customers every day. As of the end of FY2023, we employed approximately 2.1 million associates worldwide, with approximately 1.6 million associates in the U.S. We believe our associates are a significant contributor to our success. While a number of factors determine Walmart’s business performance, we believe our investments to provide career paths for our associates, including robust training, education offerings, new ways of working, and opportunities for advancement, as well as attractive wages and benefits, have strengthened our workforce. As customer demands and technology change the nature of work, we are focused on attracting, developing, and retaining people of all backgrounds who can thrive in an ever-changing retail environment and delight our customers.

Investing in frontline retail workers also creates value beyond Walmart. Communities need good entry-level jobs to provide pathways for community members to acquire skills and advance their careers, enabling workforce development and helping to sustain local economies.

Many entry-level workers have the potential to advance but need the opportunity to gain specific skills to do so. Employer-based training and employer-funded education offerings can help entry-level workers earn a good paycheck while they acquire the in-demand skills—and, in some cases, formal education—needed to move up to roles with greater responsibility and higher pay.

At the same time, employers are seeking qualified talent to fill mid-level jobs and can look to retail and other frontline workers who may lack college degrees, but who have earned valuable skills and knowledge through work, service, and/or through the earning of credentials, as potential talent pools. Not only does upskilling benefit people, but employers often find it to be a cost-effective way to meet their own needs while growing and retaining valuable talent.

Decades of overemphasis on college degrees has created a skills dilemma—related to both accessing training and recognition of skills


Transitioning to “lifelong learning” where training and new skills acquisition happen throughout entirety of career


High number of job openings in the U.S.


Almost half of U.S. workers do not have post-secondary training, credentials,
or degrees


Traditional training pathways are not meeting the scale of demand

Employers have a bigger role to play in providing training as well as recognizing skills and professional qualifications

Walmart’s Approach

We believe Walmart has a differentiated proposition with respect to upward mobility: low barriers to entry into Walmart jobs, the stability of a 70% full-time workforce, and predictable scheduling; competitive compensation and benefits; and distinctive training, development, and pathways to promotion and careers.

Our approach is based on the following principles:

  • Belonging: Make Walmart a place for everyone where associates know they are listened to, valued, engaged, and supported.
  • Well-being: Prioritize the financial, physical, and emotional well-being of associates by providing attractive pay and benefits, many of which start on the first day of employment.
  • Growth: Provide opportunities for all associates to learn and grow through leading in-house training programs, an industry-leading education platform, and multiple career pathways.
  • Strengthening workforce development beyond Walmart: Strengthen the U.S. frontline workforce development system in retail and related sectors.

Key Strategies & Progress

Belonging | Well-being | Growth | Strengthening Workforce Development Beyond Walmart

Belonging: A Culture of Access, Inclusion, & Listening

We seek a workplace culture where prospective associates can see a place for themselves and where current associates at all levels feel like they belong. Walmart offers jobs with low barriers to entry, providing millions of Americans access to the job market and the opportunity to gain experience and skills while seeking to enhance diversity across all levels of the organization. Listening to associates is core to a culture of belonging and we are continually developing new ways to receive associate feedback.

Access to Employment

Walmart offers a wide range of jobs, creating a place for everyone. We have prioritized strategies for increasing access to jobs at all levels, including:

  • Streamlined application process: We have a simplified hiring process where applicants can apply in-store, online, or from our Me@Walmart app. In many cases, we make same-day job offers.
  • Valuing skills and knowledge: As an employer, Walmart values skills and knowledge gained through work experience, volunteerism, military service, or formal education, whether online or in-person, as well as individual interests and aptitude. We believe an emphasis on relevant skills and knowledge makes it easier for job-seekers to find employment and advance.
  • Countering degree inflation: There are many roles in the U.S. job market, especially in the service sector, where a college degree should not be required for career access and mobility. For example, we do not require Walmart store managers, who earned average total compensation of approximately $230,000 in FY2023, to have a college degree.
  • Formerly incarcerated applicants: Walmart is committed to second-chance employment efforts that support the hiring and advancement of formerly incarcerated individuals. We were one of the first retailers to “ban the box” that asks about prior criminal history on the initial job application. We provide conditional job offers to candidates before the background check and have individualized processes for all candidates who have a prior criminal record. In all 50 states in which we operate, we have a Circumstance Review process that offers candidates a meaningful opportunity to submit additional information to put the criminal record in context. In 2021, Walmart launched hiring pilots working with re-entry service providers to improve employment outcomes for formerly incarcerated individuals.
Awards & Recognition

2023 Bloomberg
Gender Equality

American Opportunity Index 2022 Top 50 company for career growth and advancement without a degree

Great Place to Work Certified — Walmart Inc. and Sam’s Club (2023)

2022 Disability
Equality Index

For seventh
consecutive year

One of 15 companies to earn top scores on three of Human Rights Campaign’s (HRC) Corporate Equality measures

100 %

2022 HRC Corporate Equality Index
for sixth consecutive year

100 %

2022 HRC Equidad, MX
Walmart Mexico

100 %

2022 HRC Equidad, CL
Walmart Chile

2023 Diversity Inc.
Ranked #17 in Top 50 U.S. Companies for Diversity


Top Companies for Executive Diversity Councils


Top Companies for Mentoring


Top Companies for ESG


Top Companies for Talent Acquisition for Women of Color

Associates - HC Brief - Group 2022.PNG

Diverse Talent Pipelines

Our diverse associate base serves as a talent pipeline for future leaders in our company. Diverse talent and an inclusive culture equip us to keep pace with evolving business demands and to better serve our diverse customer base. We continue to improve our people practices with a focus on equitably hiring, developing, and rewarding our associates; seeking to enhance diversity across all levels; and holding our leaders accountable for progress. Approximately 40% of U.S. management promotions in FY2023 were earned by women and approximately 43% were earned by people of color.10 To learn more about our diverse hiring and development practices and our approach to equity and inclusion, see Equity and Inclusion at Walmart and Beyond.

Associate Feedback & Engagement

Listening to associates has been core to Walmart's culture since our founding 60 years ago. Being heard is a foundational part of job satisfaction, and we have created a system that provides real-time, actionable insights where associates are heard, managers are empowered to act, and leaders make decisions based on what matters most to associates.

Digital Tools: MyFeedback

Harnessing the Power of Digital Tools for Associate Feedback and Engagement

We provided smartphones to all associates to help improve their work experience and make it easier for them to provide feedback.

  • Real-time insights and pulse surveys
  • Sharing ideas
  • Raising questions and concerns

How we seek feedback: We believe hearing directly from associates is the best way to ensure opinions, feedback, ideas, and suggestions are understood and acted upon. In addition to face-to-face interaction, our digital tools facilitate real-time insights from millions of individual points of view. Walmart provides multiple channels for associates to be heard, including in-person dialogue; insights, engagement, and pulse surveys; and always-on confidential channels. Through these channels, we hear from thousands of associates each week. We deploy AI to analyze and route feedback, concerns, and ideas to the right team so associates get faster responses.

  • In-person dialogue, including formal one-on-one listening sessions: Our primary method of communication will always be in person — through associate/manager meetings, leadership visits, and listening sessions. For example, Walmart CEO Doug McMillon and U.S. CEO John Furner—both of whom began their careers as hourly associates—frequently visit Walmart facilities around the country to listen and learn from associates. We also conduct listening sessions with associates in connection with major associate gatherings like our shareholders' meeting and holiday meeting; there were over 70 listening sessions with hourly associates and Walmart managers accounting for more than 1,400 hours of associate listening in 2022.
  • Real-time digital insights: The Engagement Pulse Survey is a monthly survey administered to over one million Walmart U.S. frontline associates via the Me@Walmart app. The results provide Walmart U.S. leadership with a consistent measure of engagement and present an opportunity to act and positively impact associate engagement, retention, and the overall associate experience.
  • Formal surveys: In 2022, nearly one million U.S. associates participated in our annual Associate Engagement Survey. AES measures associate sentiment on a variety of topics such as relationship with manager and team, career growth and opportunity, belonging, inclusion, and company culture. AES also provides associates with the opportunity to share what the company can do to improve their experience at work. More than 500,000 associates provided open-text feedback in 2022.
  • Confidential resources (Open Door and Ethics): Often associates want to share feedback and concerns confidentially or anonymously, and we provide avenues for doing so.
    • Our Open Door process allows associates—from entry level to the C-suite—to share ideas, ask questions and raise concerns in good faith with their supervisors and other leaders at any time without fear of retaliation. Many Open Door issues are handled locally by managers, but associates who wish to raise their concerns beyond local management can utilize formal reporting channels. Additionally, U.S.-based associates can utilize the MyFeedback Portal which was designed and launched as a digital, intuitive, self-service site. Hundreds of associates utilize this channel each month.
    • Walmart’s Ethics channels allow associates to make anonymous and confidential reports via a toll-free hotline, email address, and web portal. Walmart strictly forbids retaliation against any associate who reports a concern in good faith. We train our associates to be able to recognize and speak up about retaliation and other issues. We annually survey associates on their knowledge of these channels.

Responding and accountability: Associate feedback is followed up on in several ways. For example, Engagement Pulse Survey results are provided to regional and divisional leaders and their People team partners, allowing leaders to track progress against goals and action plans and adjust priorities as needed. And AES results dashboards are distributed to facility managers, highlighting key areas of opportunity and suggesting action plans to create a more engaged workforce.

Examples of associate feedback leading to meaningful change include:

  • Well-being support: Creating and expanding family planning benefits, including adoption, surrogacy, and parental leave; launching a virtual training course, facilitated by a trained clinical subject matter expert, to help managers support their associates in mental well-being; and increasing the number of free counseling sessions from 10 to 20.
  • Training: Moving from virtual delivery of certain Walmart U.S. store training modules—including Fresh, Auto Care Center, and Front End—to in-person delivery to improve effectiveness and experience.
  • Education: Creating new short-form project management certificate program in response to associate feedback and business demand.

Freedom of association and collective bargaining: Walmart’s Board-approved Human Rights Statement expresses a firm commitment to respect the basic rights of our associates as those rights are defined under applicable law in the countries in which we operate and from which we source the products we sell. Those basic rights include freedom of association and the effective recognition of collective bargaining. We recognize there are different views about freedom of association. Our view is, consistent with applicable law, that Walmart respects the rights of associates to join, form, or not to join an employee association or trade union of their choice without interference. We also believe that associates should exercise these rights in an informed manner and with the benefit of thoughtful consideration of available information including the free exchange of ideas, opinions, and information, provided there is no interference. Our approach to freedom of association has been informed by instruments including the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Labor Organization’s 1998 Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work, and the United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights.

We have a robust labor compliance program designed so that freedom of association is upheld consistent with Walmart’s policies, positions, and relevant laws. For example:

  • All supervisors of associates receive training that includes information on respecting associates’ rights. Training is provided to newly promoted supervisors with regular follow-up.
  • Human Resources and Operations teams regularly conduct facility visits to ensure our policies and expectations are being upheld. These include impromptu visits as well as visits where there are indications that managers may not be effectively listening to their associates.
  • All associates have confidential access to Walmart Ethics or to Walmart’s Open Door to share concerns related to any treatment or policy-related matters.
  • Our associate relations team follows up on identified issues, including by re-training associates and managers on their rights and obligations.

As of the end of FY2023, certain populations of Walmart associates were represented by some form of third-party representation in 10 of the 20 countries in which Walmart operated, including Mexico, our second-largest market. In other markets, such as the U.S., our associates were not under collective bargaining agreements.

Well-being: Pay, Benefits, & Scheduling

Through attractive compensation, benefits, and scheduling, we support associates' financial, physical, and emotional well-being. Walmart provides comprehensive benefits—including health coverage, a 401(k) plan, and paid time off—to part- and full-time associates, many of which start on the first day of employment.

Associate Well-being

Attractive compensation and comprehensive benefits

Paid Leave Including Sick Leave

Starting day 1 for part- & full-time associates

Predictable Scheduling

System built around predictability, consistency, and flexibility


Affordable, high-quality plans that cost 1/3 less than the national average


Prioritizing emotional well-being for associates and their families

Financial Well-being

We aim to enhance the financial well-being of our associates by offering our majority full-time workforce predictable and flexible scheduling, paid leave, and attractive wages and benefits.

Majority Full-Time Workforce and Predictable Scheduling

Approximately 68% of our U.S. hourly associates11 are full-time. Full-time jobs can lead to greater take-home pay for associates while helping them gain the knowledge and experience needed for advancement. At the same time, we’ll always be a place where people can also find part-time roles. This helps many individuals who want to supplement household income and build new skills while managing other interests and obligations.

Walmart’s scheduling system is built around predictability, consistency, and flexibility to support the varying preferences and needs of associates while meeting the needs of our customers.

  • Scheduling control: Using the Me@Walmart app on their phones, associates can view their schedules up to two weeks in advance, pick up extra shifts, trade shifts with each other, view and request time off, and clock in.
  • Consistent scheduling: Walmart offers set schedules—up to 40 hours a week—so full-time associates can work alongside their teammates with the same shifts on the same days each week. This helps associates plan for life outside of work and know what to expect in their paychecks.
Paid Leave Benefits

Walmart offers paid time off (PTO), starting on day one of employment, to all part and full-time store, club, fulfillment center, and distribution center associates.

  • Paid time off: Walmart’s PTO policy for U.S. full- and part-time frontline hourly associates combines paid sick leave, vacation time, personal time, and holiday time into one category, giving associates flexibility in when and how to take time for themselves. Associates receive regular and protected PTO. Associates earn regular PTO at different rates, depending on their full- or part-time status or tenure. In addition, we also offer protected PTO, which allows our hourly associates to earn up to 48 hours of paid time per year (more in some locations) that they can use anytime to cover scheduled shifts, without attendance consequences, when they are unexpectedly unable to make it to work. Associates begin earning protected PTO on day one and regular PTO on their 90th day.
  • Parental leave: Walmart provides U.S. salaried and full-time hourly associates with maternity and parental leave benefits. Parental leave applies to associates who become parents through birth, adoption, or foster care placement. Full-time hourly associates who become parents are provided six weeks of paid time off and the birth mom is provided ten weeks of paid maternity leave (which can be added to parental leave for a total of 16 weeks). In FY2023, more than 30,000 Walmart parents took advantage of maternity leave or parental leave.12

Wage Structure & Pay

Offering competitive wages by role and market enables us to recruit the talent we need to run our business. Our wage structure and pay practices reflect consideration of numerous relevant factors, including the skills necessary to do the job, business format (e.g., store, club, distribution/fulfillment center), local market labor conditions (competitive compensation for similar work and cost of living), and equity (fairness relative to other roles in the company and parity across race, ethnicity, and gender).

We continually review and invest in wages at all levels of our hourly workforce, raising minimum starting wages by over 90% and average hourly wages by 54% since 2015. Additionally, we continue to strategically invest in wages in specialized areas such as pharmacy and Auto Care Centers.

Average Hourly Wage and Total Compensation (End of FY2023)13

Associate Population
Hourly Associates in Full-Time Roles
Average Starting Wage14
Average Hourly Wage
Average Total Hourly Compensation15
Peer Comparison
Walmart associates in the U.S. 68%>$15.25 >$17.00 $21.75 Omni-channel, multi-format retailers
Walmart U.S. segment16 68% >$15.25 >$17.00 >$21.50 Grocery chains, multi-category retailers, dollar stores
Sam’s Club U.S. segment17 63% >$16.25 >$17.50 >$22.25 Warehouse clubs
U.S. supply chain associates (Walmart U.S. and Sam’s Club U.S.)18 99% >$23.25 >$25.50 >$33.50 eCommerce fulfillment
Additional Financial Benefits

Beyond wages, we provide a number of additional benefits aimed at promoting associates' financial well-being, including:

  • 10% discount and free memberships: Walmart associates receive a discount card19 that provides a 10% discount on fresh fruits, vegetables, and regularly priced general merchandise, plus select merchandise on Walmart.com. Sam’s Club associates working in clubs receive a Sam’s Club Plus membership and a 10% discount on fresh fruits and vegetables.
  • Retirement: Our industry-leading20 retirement benefit includes a 401(k) contribution plan for all U.S. associates beginning on day one with the company and a match of up to 6% for full- and part-time hourly U.S. associates credited with 1,000 hours of service during their first year. Our 401(k) program had an average enrollment of approximately 700,000 in FY2023 and Walmart’s company match in the U.S. totaled $1.5 billion.
  • Stock ownership programs: In FY2023, 40% of our active full-time and salaried U.S. associates participated in at least one of Walmart’s stock ownership programs, including our Associate Stock Purchase Plan and equity awards. Age-eligible associates can participate in an associate stock purchase plan with company match: Walmart matches 15% of the first $1,800 U.S. associates contribute to their stock purchase program each year, up to $270 per plan year.21 Associates eligible for equity awards include officers, certain Home Office salaried members of management, certain supply chain management, and certain management at the market level and above.22
  • Financial planning tools: We provide associates access to tools and apps managed by expert third parties to help associates manage their money and plan for bills, savings, and spending. When unexpected expenses occur, associates can also access earned wages ahead of scheduled paychecks. More than half of our U.S. associates are using these tools to help them with their finances.
  • Financial education: Walmart collaborates with external market leaders to provide educational tools and resources to help associates learn about financial topics such as budgeting, credit scores, and investing. These collaborations have also delivered associates access to online courses that will help equip them with the knowledge and skills needed to make highly informed decisions about their money.

Pay Equity

Our strategy to grow diverse talent pipelines includes compensating our associates equitably. Walmart is committed to fair and equal pay for associates and has processes, tools, and systems in place to ensure equitable, bias-free compensation for offers, movements, and promotions within the organization.

We conduct annual pay equity analyses to confirm that, accounting for relevant factors such as position, tenure, and location, associates are paid equitably regardless of race, ethnicity, and gender. Our pay equity analyses in the U.S. confirm that women are paid 1:1 (dollar for dollar) of the pay for men, and that people of color are paid 1:1 (dollar for dollar) of the pay for white associates.

Our analyses of pay and compensation practices are conducted in consultation with expert third-party firms to confirm that we are following industry-leading standards. As part of our annual and ongoing rewards management, we adjust pay and practices, as necessary, to correct for unintended pay differences and market competitiveness. We continue to review our processes and analyses beyond the U.S. and Canada so that we can consistently review and report on our equitable pay and practices globally. We commit to annually updating this disclosure.

Fair pay is foundational to Walmart’s culture and values. Pay equity analyses are part of a larger set of practices to support and develop diverse talent and to treat all associates fairly, consistent with our core value of respect for the individual. Examples include:

  • Hiring practices: Gender-neutral job descriptions; interview training workshops and standardized interview questions; not requesting a salary history to set pay for external candidates; diverse candidate slates for U.S. officers and the Board of Directors
  • Pay controls: Market-based starting pay rates; limiting discretion on pay; reviewing pay and promotion decisions before finalization
  • Transparency: Providing self-service tools for associates to view their pay details and range at any time; supporting associate inquiries regarding pay and providing confidential resources for raising concerns

Physical Well-being

We are committed to providing associates and their family members who utilize our medical plans with access to affordable, high-quality care while also encouraging physical wellness for all associates. Walmart is at the forefront of employee health-care innovation with a focus on delivering a simpler experience with better quality and at lower costs, setting the standard for the industry.

Medical Plans
  • Affordable and accessible medical coverage: Full-time associates and eligible part-time associates have access to health coverage through Walmart.23 For 2023, medical coverage starts at $33 per pay period, approximately one-third less than the average premium employees pay at other companies nationally.24
  • Centers of Excellence: To provide our associates with quality care, Walmart partners with leading health centers, including the Cleveland Clinic, Johns Hopkins, and the Mayo Clinic. For associates enrolled in Walmart medical plans, our Centers of Excellence program provides access to some of the best specialists and hospitals for serious medical issues, often at zero cost, based on plan enrollment and eligibility. Procedures covered include heart, spine, and weight loss surgery; hip and knee replacements; fertility treatment; and cancer care. Of enrolled medical members using the Centers of Excellence benefit, 92% are field associates.
  • Health concierge: Most Walmart medical plans include a concierge platform at no cost to the associate. The platform helps associates find quality providers that are in-network and close to home, get expert medical second opinions, and explain medical bills. The platform also offers a care navigation service designed to meet the healthcare needs of our LGBTQ+ associates and their families.
  • Virtual healthcare: Most Walmart medical plans include affordable, nationwide, virtual access to health care providers at no cost. The service includes mental health-care and—in certain states—the option to have a virtual primary care physician.
  • Family-building support: Walmart is committed to supporting its associates as they grow their families. Benefits offered include:
    • Fertility care: Up to $20,000 to support fertility treatment through Walmart’s Centers of Excellence program; open to associates and adult family members enrolled in Walmart-sponsored medical plans.
    • Surrogacy and adoption: Up to $20,000 reimbursement of eligible surrogacy and adoption services; open to salaried management (upon hire) and full-time hourly associates (after 12 months of employment).
Image of a blacktop road at sunrise, taken from the ground. In close-up is shown the lower half of a man wearing running shorts and a jacket, squatting down to tie his right running shoe.
Encouraging Physical Wellness
  • Fitness Pass: For as little as $9 per paycheck, a Walton Life Fitness Pass membership provides U.S. associates and their family members access to thousands of fitness centers nationwide.
  • A financial incentive for healthier life choices: Associates and their families can be rewarded for making better choices such as eating healthier, walking more, or saving more.

Emotional Well-being

Mental health challenges like anxiety, stress, and depression are some of the most common conditions people across all demographics experience today. Walmart prioritizes emotional well-being, providing associates and their family members access to resources like 24/7 no-cost counseling sessions, peer-to-peer support groups, and educational tools that are tailored to their unique needs. Initiatives include:

  • No-cost behavioral health services: Walmart associates and their family members can receive confidential no-cost counseling with a licensed therapist 24/7. Whatever the need, associates get 20 free sessions for themselves and their household family members through channels that fit them best—in person, on the phone, via video, or via chat.
  • Workforce mental health training: Walmart is providing emotional well-being awareness education for leaders—both in the field and at our offices—to better equip them to recognize signs that associates might be struggling with mental health issues, how to respond to an associate having challenges, and how to connect associates with resources to help.
  • Outreach: Mental health professionals reach out to associates in certain states with the goal of providing support and an early connection to care.
  • Group support: Associates can access anonymous peer support and group chat in moderated forums, allowing them to connect with people who understand their struggles.

Growth: Building Careers Through Experience, Training, & Education

Career & Growth Opportunities

Since our founding, Walmart has served as an entry point to learn job skills and a gateway to upward mobility for millions. While people join us at many different stages in life, about 40% of Walmart's U.S. hourly workforce is under the age of 30, with 12% under the age of 20—a critical time in a career to gain skills and experience and start moving up to roles of greater responsibility and higher pay. From the time an associate joins Walmart, we are focused on supporting their growth, unlocking their potential, and helping them develop their careers.

Growth starts on day one of employment at Walmart when associates begin working and learning on a team where they are cross-trained in a variety of skills; growth can continue through Walmart Academy training programs and with Live Better U education offerings. Associates can use these experiences and acquired knowledge to continue moving up to roles with greater responsibility and higher pay.

  • Walmart U.S. associates receive their first promotion, on average, within seven months of joining the company.
  • Over the last five years (FY2019-FY2023), an average of more than 195,000 U.S. associates received promotions each year, including more than 180,000 associates promoted in FY2023.
  • 88% of U.S. roles above entry level were filled internally in FY2023.
  • Approximately 75% of our U.S. salaried store, club, and supply-chain management started their careers in hourly positions. Associates in these roles earned an average of more than $113,000 in FY2023.

Few employers offer the range of careers or scope of opportunities as Walmart. Whether an associate is interested in customer-facing retail, merchandising, supply chain, robotics, data analytics, or other areas, a Walmart associate can build their skill sets across our multifaceted business and have opportunities for movement between segments, roles, and geographies. About two-thirds of our associates believe they have career growth opportunities at Walmart and access to the experiences and opportunities that will help them achieve their career goals.

Moving from the Field to Our Home Office

In 2022, Walmart launched an initiative to connect U.S. field associates pursuing a secondary degree with Home Office roles. The eight-week internship program focuses on role-specific projects, mentorship, and executive visibility, with the end-goal of participants receiving a full-time offer. Ninety percent of the associates who had a Home Office internship in 2022 have moved from their field-based jobs into salaried roles at our corporate headquarters in Bentonville, Arkansas.

Walmart Careers: Multiple Points of Entry, Multiple Career Paths


We believe this ability to grow a career is a significant reason why many associates choose to stay with Walmart. As of the end of FY2023, the average tenure for a Walmart associate in the U.S. was 5 years; over 300,000 U.S. associates have spent more than 10 years with Walmart and over 50,000 associates have been with the company for 25 years or more.

Learning Ecosystem: Training & Education

Our learning ecosystem provides associates access to training and education to help them meet their career goals while providing Walmart a ready source of top talent across our business.

Training: On-the-Job Development & Walmart Academy Trainings

Walmart has embedded training for part- and full-time associates throughout the associate experience:

  • On-the-job: Our teaming structure—an operating model that places associates on teams with tiered positions where they are responsible for specific store areas—provides cross-training and on-the-job development starting on day one with the company.
  • On-demand: Store associates use our in-house designed Walmart Academy learning app during their onboarding process and early in a new role to receive training on the fundamentals of success in their role, including customer service, execution of core functions for their department, safety, and compliance. All store associates can access the full training library so they can get just-in-time training on specialized functions and explore areas of personal interest, allowing them to earn knowledge badges that signal to managers an associate's interest in growth and potential career paths. Additionally, Walmart uses virtual Walmart Academy training to bring learning experiences to associates' facilities using virtual reality. Virtual reality training puts associates in real-life scenarios that are difficult to replicate, such as learning Auto Care Center operations.
  • Formal, in-person: Walmart has more than 200 physical Walmart Academies in the United States focused on developing strong people leaders. Training starts at the hourly supervisor level—the first rung of the leadership ladder at Walmart. The two-week training includes immersive teaching that combines technology, classroom training, and ongoing coaching on the sales floor on how to lead people while growing their knowledge of retail essentials and Walmart's values and culture. New salaried managers receive more advanced training in a similar format. Our Manager Academy program is designed to help senior field managers—those who lead stores, clubs, and supply-chain facilities—be effective leaders and keepers of our purpose, values, and culture. Manager Academy consists of a seven-month journey, beginning with a 360-degree performance review based on anonymous feedback from associates in their facilities and others with whom they work closely. The Academy includes a five-day session at our Home Office in Bentonville in which participants are guided through a series of classroom discussions and hands-on experiences that bring our culture and values to life. Participants spend time with senior leaders, including our CEO, who reinforce the importance of their role in representing our culture as they lead and grow associates.

In FY2023, approximately 400,000 associates in the U.S. received training via Walmart Academy, including in-person and virtual training.

Preparing Associates for In-Demand Roles

We are committed to making Walmart a place for economic acceleration and a launching pad for people to acquire the skills and experience needed to advance and thrive in in-demand roles. For example, Walmart launched a Private Fleet Development Program, providing Walmart associates working in stores, distribution centers, fulfillment centers, and transportation offices the opportunity to earn their Commercial Driver's License (CDL) and become a Walmart private fleet driver. Established Walmart drivers serve as Certified Driver Trainers and work with trainees, teaching written material, and overseeing driving, to help associates earn their CDL at no cost to the associate.

Human Capital
Education Offerings: Walmart’s Live Better U

While Walmart has prioritized upward mobility through on-the-job, digital, and in-person training programs, formal education helps to open even more paths within Walmart and outside it. Walmart's Live Better U (LBU) offers more than 1.5 million U.S. part- and full-time hourly Walmart and Sam's Club associates25 access to Walmart-paid formal education opportunities, from foundational offerings like high school completion, to short-form programs including Business Analytics and Project Management, to college degrees. Since launching the LBU program in 2018:

  • More than 100,000 associates have enrolled in LBU, including 34,000 in FY2023.
  • Associates have completed over 17,000 programs, including diplomas, credentials, and degrees.
  • Associates have saved an estimated $498 million in tuition costs.
Infographic showing LBU Current Academic Offerings

We believe LBU can help address disparities in access to education and drive increased talent attraction while creating upward mobility for associates and scaling our internal talent pipelines.

LBU Benefits to Associates
LBU Benefits to Walmart
  • Debt-free: 100% paid by Walmart, including tuition and books, upfront; not a reimbursement model
  • Accessibility: Available to 1.5 million frontline associates beginning day one with Walmart
  • Top academic partners: Top-ranked colleges, universities, and institutions with proven track records of delivering results for adult learners
  • Support: Coaching and guidance to navigate the college system and to stay on track with studies
  • Relevance: Short-form programs, credentials, certificates, and degrees relevant to building careers both at Walmart and outside our company and in a changing economy
  • Retention: According to a 2021 study, Walmart hourly associates who participated in LBU leave the company at a rate four times lower than non-participants
  • Performance: The study found that LBU participants' performance in role improved after they enrolled in the program
  • Supporting a diverse internal talent pipeline: The study found that Black hourly associates who participated in LBU were 87.5 percent more likely to receive promotions than non-participants.  White associates were 80 percent more likely, and Hispanic or Latino associates were 70.7 percent more likely
  • Ready source of talent: LBU degree programs are selected due to their relevance for business. including cybersecurity, data analytics, and project management

LBU Snapshot, as of the End of FY2023

LBU Program
Number of LBU Students Enrolled (since 2018 and as of Jan 2023)
Number of LBU Graduates (since 2018 and as of Jan 2023)
Foundational Programs
High School Completion 17,6704,598
ESL / Language programs26 4,0261,06327
“College Start” – introductory classes for bachelor’s degrees 15,5423,521
Short-Form Programs
People and Business Leadership certificate 3,375 1,862
Other certificates (e.g., web design, project management, and business analytics) 8,511 2,739
Degree and Career Diploma Programs
Career diplomas in eight fields (e.g., optician, construction, electrician training) 18,793 1,173
Associate degrees 3,960 465
Bachelor degrees 40,667 2,886

Strengthening Workforce Development Beyond Walmart

Education beyond high school has often been seen as key to increasing economic mobility, but more than half of American adults do not have a post-secondary degree. Through business and philanthropic initiatives, Walmart and the Walmart Foundation collaborate with stakeholders and thought leaders to promote recognition of skills (rather than educational pedigree) as key to career advancement for frontline workers and invest in organizations that promote equitable advancement. Over the last five years (FY2019-FY2023), Walmart and the Walmart Foundation have invested over $144 million to accelerate career mobility for front-line workers.

To help accelerate the advancement of frontline workers, the Walmart.org Retail Opportunity program funds innovation in four aspects of workforce systems:

  • Ensuring all workers can access high-quality learning paths that connect across all types of learning opportunities and provide workers with the knowledge, skills, and abilities that employers value. Not only do workers need high-quality learning and credentials to build their skills, but they also need to understand how those credentials, when connected and stacked together, create a pathway to an available job and a long-term career. For example, we invested in Education Design Lab's micro-pathways initiative. The initiative engaged 30 community colleges to co-create (along with learners and employers in their communities) micro-pathways—a set of two or more stackable, short-term credentials that would result in a job at or above the local median wage. These micro-pathways span numerous industry sectors.
  • Enabling transparent career navigation that ensures all workers have the ability and support necessary to effectively navigate paths from good jobs to better careers. While career navigation tools and services exist today, there is a need to make those services more accessible and scalable for frontline incumbent workers, to have those tools and services follow a worker along their career pathway, and to understand which tools and services are most effective for whom and at what stage along their journey.  Two research grants—one to the Harvard Project on Workforce and one to National Fund for Workforce Solutions—seek to develop an understanding of the landscape of effective services, tools, and best practices (such as career navigators, job search tools, and apps like Career Karma that match workers to job training programs) and why they have been effective.
  • Driving inclusive employer practices that lead to the adoption of equitable, skills-based talent practices that create value for people and business. In today’s tight labor market, employers are seeking qualified, skilled talent to fill important roles. Skill-based hiring and advancement practices can help businesses expand their external talent sources, find and grow internal talent with needed skills, and get the right people in the right roles at the right time. Walmart.org investments have focused on driving adoption of skills-based hiring and advancement practices at businesses of all sizes. As a member of the Business Roundtable’s Multiple Pathways Initiative, we have engaged with 80 leading companies working together to implement skills-based practices. Additionally, Walmart.org funded Jobs for the Future, Year Up’s Grads of Life initiative, and FSG to provide expert support for Multiple Pathways.
  • Building an ecosystem that allows data to move between tech systems and platforms that enable workers to identify, capture, and communicate their skills and interests in a way that employers value. As we seek more sophisticated models of career navigation, connected learning pathways, and job matching that leads to more equitable advancement, there is a need for a more responsive, technology-based workforce system and infrastructure supported by verifiable data at both the individual and community level. A grant to the Digital Credentials Consortium (DCC), hosted by MIT, supported the establishment of a coalition of national organizations representing different stakeholders to create a vision for and map of the interoperable technology infrastructure required to respond to our workforce system needs of today.


  • Opportunity is not equally distributed across society, particularly along racial, ethnic, economic, gender, and geographic lines.
  • The economic and cultural environment favors traditional educational models over on-the-job education and skills development, and there is an immature market for cost-effective, practical tools to rapidly build skills among adult learners.
  • Achievement of Walmart’s workforce development aspirations is dependent on retailers and other similar businesses embracing the business case for frontline workforce development, as well as taking a skills-based approach to hiring and advancement in which an individual's skills and capabilities, no matter where learned, drive hiring and advancement opportunities.
  • Social science and economic philosophy are still developing on the most effective strategies for frontline workforce development at scale, and there are differences of opinion on what constitutes a good job and a fair and compelling associate value proposition. As a result, there are pressures for faster or more urgent action in certain aspects of Walmart’s overall human capital strategy (e.g., base hourly wage) that may obscure the importance of other strategies that promote economic and career mobility (e.g., benefits, upskilling, and mobility).
  • Walmart is subject to local, national, and international economic trends and realities. There is strong competition among employers for skilled, diverse workers, and labor surpluses and shortages can impact retail businesses.
  • Walmart’s business is evolving rapidly. Customer trends towards omni-channel shopping, including pickup and delivery, change the skills necessary in Walmart's frontline workforce and may outpace incumbent associates' skills and readiness. Our training and upskilling strategies are intended to address this need but may not always keep pace.
  • National and global catastrophic events, including pandemics, can exacerbate many of the above factors.  

About Our Reporting

Additional Resources


1. Data includes both hourly and management promotions and excludes Walmart Home Office promotions.

2. Promotions in FY2021 represented a significant departure from usual levels as we moved Walmart U.S. Stores to a new "teaming" structure. Promotions have averaged 195,000/year over the five years ending with FY2023.

3. U.S. metrics include all 50 states but exclude Puerto Rico. U.S. non-management metrics include all hourly associates, excluding temporary associates.

4. U.S. metrics include all 50 states but exclude Puerto Rico. U.S. management metrics include all salaried, exempt associates.

5. U.S. metrics include all 50 states but exclude Puerto Rico. U.S. officer metrics include president, executive vice president, senior vice president, and vice president positions.

6. Compared to our reporting of this metric in FY2021, we believe the significant increase in the proportion of LBU students who identify as people of color in FY2022 is in part due to the removal of the $1/day fee in FY2022 and the addition of strategic partners such as Morehouse College, North Carolina A&T University, Spelman College, and the University of Arizona.

7. The calculation excludes the following associate types: Home Office, pharmacists, on-site-clinics, drivers, management trainees, and temporary associates.

8. For full- and part-time associates when eligible.

9. The calculation excludes the following associate types: Home office associates, pharmacists, on-site-clinics, drivers, management trainees and, temporary associates. Average total compensation includes average hourly pay, other compensation, and benefits per hour for full- and part-time associates. This does not include special cash bonuses or paid leave related to COVID-19.

10. U.S. metrics include all 50 states but exclude Puerto Rico. U.S. management metrics include all salaried, exempt associates.

11. The calculation excludes the following associate types: Pharmacists, on-site-clinics, drivers, management trainees and, temporary associates.

12. Salaried and truck driver associates: Eligible as of hire date. Full‑time hourly associates: Eligible following 12 months of service. Part-time and temporary associates: Not eligible.

13. Wage metrics in the table exclude the following associate types: Home Office associates, pharmacists, on-site-clinics, drivers, management trainees, and temporary associates.

14. The average hourly starting rate is calculated as the average hourly wage of U.S. associates that joined in the preceding six months. Starting wage ranges were $12-$32/hour (Walmart U.S.), $15-$32/hour (Sam's Club U.S.), and $16-$30 (supply chain). The minimum starting wage rate was increased to $14/hour in Walmart U.S. in February 2023.

15. Average total compensation includes average hourly pay, other compensation and benefits per hour for full and part time associates. This does not include special cash bonuses or paid leave related to COVID-19.

16. This segment includes Walmart U.S. stores and supply chain.

17. This segment includes Sam’s Club clubs and supply chain.

18. Supply chain includes associates who work in distribution and fulfillment centers but excludes drivers.

19. Full- and part-time Walmart U.S. associates receive the discount card after 90 days of employment.

20. According to BLS, 69% of retail workers have access to employer-sponsored defined contribution retirement plans, whereas 100% of Walmart associates have access to such a plan through our 401(k).

21. All U.S. associates meeting age requirements are eligible to participate.

22. Award types and grant values are dependent upon the recipient’s pay band structure or position pay range as stated in the plan documents.

23. Per BLS, 53% of retail workers have access to employer-sponsored healthcare as of 2022.

24. See Figure 6.4, 2022 Kaiser Family Foundation Health Benefits Annual Survey.

25. Full-time and part-time U.S. hourly associates are eligible on their first day. Full-time and part-time salaried associates up to the market level are also eligible.

26. Launched April 2021.

27. Figure represents the number of associates who demonstrated enhanced English language proficiency as determined by performance on English proficiency assessments.